First an announcement…
National Taco Day
October 4, 2015
Today we will be talking about Tokamak.
Do you know about tokamak? fusion? plasma?
Fusion power has the potential to provide sufficient energy to satisfy mounting demand, and to do so sustainably, with a relatively small impact on the environment.
Here’s a couple quick videos:
Within the tokamak, we see field coils, the vacuum vessel, blanket modules, divertor cassettes, and equipment for heating and diagnostics. Visible is one of the high-energy neutral beam injectors that heat and drive the plasma. The fusion fuel consists of deuterium and tritium, which are isotopes of ordinary hydrogen (shown in red and green in the visualization). To produce fusion reactions, the fuel must be heated to a temperature of about one hundred million degrees – about ten times the temperature of the core of the sun. At such temperatures, the electrons of atoms are stripped from the nuclei forming as a state of matter called plasma. One method of achieving these high temperatures is by injecting beams of high-energy neutral atoms into the tokamak. An initial plasma is formed and heated by driving an electric current through the fuel gas in the tokamak chamber. When the plasma reaches a sufficient density and temperature, the injectors are turned on. Because injected atoms are electrically neutral, they are unaffected by the magnetic field and can penetrate deep into the plasma before being ionized by collisions with plasma particles. These very energetic beam ions are trapped by the magnetic field and circulate throughout the plasma, colliding with the plasma particles and transferring energy to them. As the temperature of the plasma rises, due to the beam heating, fusion reactions between the plasma deuterium and tritium begin to occur.
On an unrelated story, or is it..
This story ran on Nov 08, 2011
And it just so happens there was a tokamak conference that same time period:
Gravitation confinement vs Magnetic confinement
- a toroidal apparatus for producing controlled fusion reactions in hot plasma.
Tokamak de Fontenay aux Roses [TFR] (1973)
The Tokamak de Fontenay-aux-Roses (TFR) was the first French tokamak, built in a research centre of the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) in Fontenay-aux-Roses, a commune in the southwestern suburbs of Paris, France.
In the years 1973 to 1976, it was the highest-performance fusion device in the world.
Events in 1973
- July 6 – St Andrew’s Cathedral, Singapore is gazetted as a national monument.cathedral=cathode
- July 10 – The Bahamas gains full independence within the Commonwealth of Nations.
- July 11 – Varig Flight 820 crashes near Orly, France; 123 are killed.
- July 12 – National Personnel Records Center fire: A major fire destroys the entire 6th floor of the National Personnel Records Center in St. Louis, Missouri.
- July 16 – Watergate scandal: Former White House aide Alexander Butterfield informs the United States Senate Watergate Committee that President Richard Nixon had secretly recorded potentially incriminating conversations.
- July 17 – King Mohammed Zahir Shah of Afghanistan is deposed by his cousin Mohammed Daoud Khan while in Italy undergoing eye surgery.
July 20 –
- July 23 – The Avianca Building in Bogotá, Colombia suffers a serious fire.
- July 25 – The Soviet Mars 5 space probe is launched.
Events in 1974
- September 8 – TWA Flight 841 crashes into the Ionian Sea 18 minutes after take off from Athens, after a bomb explodes in the cargo hold, and kills 88 people.
- October 30 – The Rumble in the Jungle takes place in Kinshasa, Zaire, where Muhammad Ali knocks out George Foreman in 8 rounds
- November 16 – Arecibo message: The radio telescope at the Arecibo Observatory on Puerto Rico sends an interstellar radio message towards Messier 13, the Great Globular Cluster in Hercules. The message will reach its destination around the year 27,000.
- November 18 – The International Energy Agency is founded.
- December 1 – A Boeing 727 carrying TWA Flight 514 crashes 25 miles (40 km) northwest of Dulles International Airport during bad weather, killing all 92 people on board.
Events in 1975
- A fire breaks out in the World Trade Center.
- A major tube train crash at Moorgate station, London kills 43 people.
- March 28 – A fire in the maternity wing at Kucic Hospital in Rijeka, former Yugoslavia, kills 25 people.
- May 25 – Indianapolis 500: Bobby Unser wins for a second time in a rain-shorted 174 lap, 435 mile (696 km) race.
- September–October – In New Zealand, Māori leader Whina Cooper leads a march of 5,000 people, in support of Maori claims to their land.
- September 6 – A Richter scale 6.7 magnitude earthquake kills at least 2,085 in Diyarbakır and Lice, Turkey.
- October 2 – A blast at an explosives factory kills 6 in Beloeil, Quebec.
November 29 – The name “Micro-soft” (for microcomputer software) is used by Bill Gates in a letter to Paul Allen for the first time (Microsoft becomes a registered trademark on November 26, 1976).
- December 21 – Six people, including Carlos the Jackal, kidnap delegates of an OPEC conference in Vienna.
- December 25 – The heavy metal band Iron Maiden is formed by Steve Harris in London.
- December 29 – A bomb explosion at LaGuardia Airport in New York City kills 11 people.
January – The Cray-1, the first commercially developed supercomputer, is released by Seymour Cray‘s Cray Research.
- Apple Computer Company is formed by Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak.
- An explosion in an ammunition factory in Lapua, Finland kills 40.
- May 6 – An earthquake hits the Friuli area in Italy, killing more than 900 people and making another 100,000 homeless.
- July 3 – The great heat wave in the United Kingdom, which is currently suffering from drought conditions, reaches its peak.
- July 28 – The Tangshan earthquake flattens Tangshan, China, killing 242,769 people, and injuring 164,851.
- August 14 – Ten thousand Protestant and Catholic women demonstrate for peace in Northern Ireland.
- November 24 – At least 3,840 are killed in a Richter scale magnitude 7.3 earthquake of Van and Muradiye in Turkey.
- November 26 – Microsoft is officially registered with the Office of the Secretary of the State of New Mexico.
- The first known outbreak of Ebola virus occurs in Yambuku, Zaire.
Joint European Torus [JET] (1984)
|Major radius||2.96 m|
|Minor Radius||1.25–2.10 m|
|Plasma volume||100 m3|
|Magnetic field||3.45 T (toroidal)|
- 1973 – Beginning of design work
- 25 June 1983 – Very first plasma achieved at JET
- Cost: 198.8 Million European Units of Account (predecessor to the Euro). JET was completed in 1983. This is roughly 438 Million in 2014 US dollars.
Scientists at Oxfordshire are preparing for the fusion testing set to begin in 2015. They hope to break their own record of 16 megawatts of fusion power.
Tore Supra (1988)
It now holds the record of the longest plasma duration time for a tokamak (6 minutes 30 seconds and over 1000 MJ of energy injected and extracted in 2003)
International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor [ITER] (2019)
an international nuclear fusion research and engineering megaproject, which is currently building the world’s largest experimental tokamak nuclear fusion reactoradjacent to the Cadarache facility in the south of France.
ITER began in 1985 as a Reagan–Gorbachev initiative with the equal participation of the Soviet Union, European Union (through EURATOM), the United States, and Japan through the 1988–1998 initial design phases.
|2020||Predicted: Achievement of first plasma.|
As of 13 July 2010, the total price of constructing the experiment is expected to be in excess of €15 billion
The Famous Tokamak Poster (Download high quality: jg07-414-1c-2008-08-19B)
First tokamak TMP, USSR (Sometimes known incorrectly as TMB.) 1954
- September 8, 1954– The Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) is established in Bangkok, Thailand.
- September 9, 1954 – An earthquake centered on the city of Orléansville, Algeria kills 1,500 and leaves thousands homeless.
- September 11, 1954 – The Miss America Pageant is broadcast on television for the first time.
- September 14, 1954 – The Soviet Union test fires a thermonuclear bomb for the first time.
It’s like they create a new world. See what happened in 1954
First use of a metallic liner inside the torus T-1, USSR 1958 (approx.)
First tokamak to demonstrate plasma disruptions TM-3, USSR 1963
First full carbon first wall TM-3, USSR 1963
- November 1 – Arecibo Observatory, a radio telescope, officially begins operation in Puerto Rico.
- Assassination of John F. Kennedy:
- The first episode of the BBC television series Doctor Who is broadcast in the United Kingdom.
- October 4 – Hurricane Flora, one of the worst Atlantic storms in history, hits Hispaniola and Cuba, killing nearly 7,000 people.
Now that you’ve seen a few of the beautiful facilities, take a look at this story:
Which brings me to the eulogy:
From mother, Veronique Pozner:
The sky is crying, and the flags are at half-mast. It is a sad, sad day. But it is also your day, Noah, my little man. I will miss your forceful and purposeful little steps stomping through our house. I will miss your perpetual smile, the twinkle in your dark blue eyes, framed by eyelashes that would be the envy of any lady in this room.
Most of all, I will miss your visions of your future. You wanted to be a doctor, a soldier, a taco factory manager. It was your favorite food, and no doubt you wanted to ensure that the world kept producing tacos.
You were a little boy whose life force had all the gravitational pull of a celestial body. You were light and love, mischief and pranks. You adored your family with every fiber of your 6-year-old being. We are all of us elevated in our humanity by having known you. A little maverick, who didn’t always want to do his schoolwork or clean up his toys, when practicing his ninja moves or Super Mario on the Wii seemed far more important.
Noah, you will not pass through this way again. I can only believe that you were planted on Earth to bloom in heaven. Take flight, my boy. Soar. You now have the wings you always wanted. Go to that peaceful valley that we will all one day come to know. I will join you someday. Not today. I still have lots of mommy love to give to Danielle, Michael, Sophia and Arielle.
Until then, your melody will linger in our hearts forever. Momma loves you, little man.
Not sure if that’s a eulogy for a little kid, or for another dimension.
But I digress.
Other mentions for taco:
An operation to observe the beam is planned for the week of February 10.
So let’s do a breakdown:
The Tore Supra holds the record of the longest plasma duration time for a tokamak…the date this took place was May 21, 2003.
Primary Author: deGrassie, J.S.
Modification Date: 2003/11/21
|Title: Toroidal Rotation in ECH H-Modes in DIII-D (A24310)|
Let’s see what happened on that day elsewhere:
May 21, 2003
- [MASS/GRAVITY] An earthquake in northern Algeria measures 6.7 on the Richter scale; at least 1,600 are feared dead and 7,000 injured. (The largest earthquake to hit Algeria occurred in May, 2003. Nearly two thousand people were killed in Algiers and Boumerdes province, in the centre of the country.)
- [HEAT/THERMAL] An explosion occurs inside the Yale University’s Sterling Law School Building in New Haven, Connecticut (Pretty close to Sandy Hook, Connecticut), damaging two rooms. Investigators from the Joint Terrorism Task Horse respond. No injuries reported. Authorities strongly believe the explosion was caused by a pipe bomb.
- [TIME/SATURN] In Britain, the convicted child-killer Mary Bell, now living under a new name and assumed identity, wins her High Court battle for anonymity. (Mary Flora Bell (born 26 May 1957) is a British woman who, as a child, strangled to death two little boys in Scotswood, an inner-city suburb of Newcastle upon Tyne. She was convicted in December 1968 of the manslaughter of the two boys, Martin Brown (aged four) and Brian Howe (aged three). Bell was 11 when she was convicted for killing Brown and Howe.)
- [VIBRATION/FREQUENCY] In a close vote, Ruben Studdard beat out Clay Aiken to become the next American Idol. The second season of American Idol premiered on January 21, 2003, and continued until May 21, 2003
November 7, 1991
- The KGB officially stops operations.
- The CPSU and its republic-level division, the Communist Party of the Russian SFSR, are banned in the Russian SFSR by Presidential decree N 169.
- Los Angeles Lakers point guard Magic Johnson announces he has HIV, effectively ending his NBA career.
- The last oil well fire in Kuwait is extinguished.
- The first report on carbon nanotubes is published by Sumio Iijima in the journal Nature.
- Hong Kong begins the forcible repatriation of Vietnamese boat people, starting with a group of 59 who were flown to Hanoi.
- The British JET fusion reactor generates 1.5 MW output power.
- On the anniversary of Kristallnacht, tens of thousands of protestors demonstrate against attacks on immigrant workers.November 12
- June Rowlands is elected the first female Mayor of Toronto.
It goes back even more:
was a pogrom (a series of coordinated deadly attacks) against Jews throughout Nazi Germany and Austria on 9–10 November 1938, carried out by SA paramilitary forces and non-Jewish civilians. German authorities looked on without intervening. The name Kristallnacht comes from the shards of broken glass that littered the streets after Jewish-owned stores, buildings, and synagogues had their windows smashed.
Historical events for November 1938:
- 8th – 1st black woman legislator, Crystal Bird Fauset of Phila
- 8th – A pogrom against the Jews of Germany and Austria takes place in response to the assassination of a German diplomat in Paris.
- 9th – Al Capp, cartoonist of Lil’ Abner creates Sadie Hawkins Day
- Baseball Legend Babe RuthBaseball Legend Babe Ruth
- 9th – Kristallnacht, Nazi Germany’s first large-scale physical act of anti-Jewish violence, begins.
- 10th – 8.3 earthquake shakes East of Shumagin Islands, Alaska
- 10th – Nobel for literature awarded to Pearl Buck (Good Earth)
So I hope you can see, that whatever it is we are doing with these fusion reactors, it requires participation from things around it, whether you like it or not.
Will keep searching but i definitely see a pattern.
I have a hard time believing this line:
Mastering thermonuclear energy would provide mankind with an inexhaustible, safe and ecologically acceptable energy source.
I don’t think they do anything for the good.